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At the beginning of the 20th century,
the farm colony was quickly becoming the preferred model for institutional treatment of chronic cases in the Commonwealth. By 1901 farm colonies had been implemented by Fernald State School for the care of long term custodial residents as well as in Grafton by the Worcester Lunatic Hospital. Over the next twenty years, further colonies would be established as satellites to numerous state hospitals as well as for the treatment of Hanson's disease and alcoholism.