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{{infobox institution
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== History ==
| name = Buffalo State Hospital
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[[image:Buffalo01.png|thumb|200px|right]]
| image = Buffalo02.png
 
| image_size = 250px
 
| alt = Twin towers of BSH
 
| caption = Admin of Buffalo State Hospital
 
| established =
 
| construction_began = 1870
 
| construction_ended =
 
| opened = 1880
 
| closed =
 
| demolished =
 
| current_status = [[Active Institution|Active]] and [[Preserved Institution|Preserved]]
 
| building_style = [[Kirkbride Planned Institutions|Kirkbride Plan]]
 
| architect(s) = Henry Hobson Richardson
 
| location = Buffalo, NY
 
| architecture_style =
 
| peak_patient_population =
 
| alternate_names =<br>
 
*Buffalo Psychiatric Center,
 
*Buffalo State Lunatic Asylum,
 
*H.H. Richardson Complex,
 
*Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane,
 
*Richardson Olmsted Complex
 
}}
 
 
 
==History==
 
 
The Henry Hobson Richardson Complex, or the Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane, as it was originally called, started construction in 1870 and was completed almost 20 years later. It was a state-of-the-art facility when it was built, incorporating the most modern ideas in psychiatric treatment. The design of the buildings as well as the restorative grounds, designed by famed landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted, were intended to complement the innovations in psychiatric care practiced at this facility.
 
The Henry Hobson Richardson Complex, or the Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane, as it was originally called, started construction in 1870 and was completed almost 20 years later. It was a state-of-the-art facility when it was built, incorporating the most modern ideas in psychiatric treatment. The design of the buildings as well as the restorative grounds, designed by famed landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted, were intended to complement the innovations in psychiatric care practiced at this facility.
 
[[image:HPIM1833.JPG|thumb|200px|left]]
 
  
 
At the time Richardson was commissioned to design the complex he was still relatively unknown, but he was later to become the first American architect to achieve international fame. The complex was ultimately the largest building of his career and the first to display his characteristic style - what came to be known as Richardsonian Romanesque – and is internationally regarded as one of the best examples of its kind. Among many others, his genius also yielded the New York State Capital, the Albany City Hall, Trinity Church in Boston, and the Glessner House in Chicago.
 
At the time Richardson was commissioned to design the complex he was still relatively unknown, but he was later to become the first American architect to achieve international fame. The complex was ultimately the largest building of his career and the first to display his characteristic style - what came to be known as Richardsonian Romanesque – and is internationally regarded as one of the best examples of its kind. Among many others, his genius also yielded the New York State Capital, the Albany City Hall, Trinity Church in Boston, and the Glessner House in Chicago.
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The central tower building and adjacent buildings were constructed using Medina Sandstone quarried in nearby Orleans County. The wings were constructed with brick.
 
The central tower building and adjacent buildings were constructed using Medina Sandstone quarried in nearby Orleans County. The wings were constructed with brick.
  
[[image:Buffalo01.png|thumb|200px|right]]
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[[image:Buffalo02.png|thumb|200px|left]]
 
A plan for laying out the grounds was prepared by Olmsted and partially completed. Olmsted’s paths and arrangement of spaces were designed to facilitate the activities and philosophy underlying the Kirkbride system. Calvert Vaux, also a landscape architect and collaborator with Olmsted, contributed to the final layout.
 
A plan for laying out the grounds was prepared by Olmsted and partially completed. Olmsted’s paths and arrangement of spaces were designed to facilitate the activities and philosophy underlying the Kirkbride system. Calvert Vaux, also a landscape architect and collaborator with Olmsted, contributed to the final layout.
  
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In previous studies, as well as the most recent one, numerous reuse options were evaluated but none were implemented. Among the options studied were: research incubator educational park; office or residential uses; arts center with various galleries, studios, etc.; and senior assisted living housing and the consolidation of Buffalo Public School’s Olmsted Schools.
 
In previous studies, as well as the most recent one, numerous reuse options were evaluated but none were implemented. Among the options studied were: research incubator educational park; office or residential uses; arts center with various galleries, studios, etc.; and senior assisted living housing and the consolidation of Buffalo Public School’s Olmsted Schools.
  
The complex is internationally regarded as one of architecture’s great treasures. In 1973 it was added to the State and National Registers of Historic Places, and in 1986 it was registered as a National Historic Landmark – one of only seven such sites in Western New York - and is listed on the National Trust’s list of twelve nationwide "sites to save" and the Preservation League’s statewide list of seven "sites to save." <ref>Source: [http://www.richardson-olmsted.com/history.php http://www.richardson-olmsted.com/history.php] - Richardson Center Complex, Buffalo NY</ref>
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The complex is internationally regarded as one of architecture’s great treasures. In 1973 it was added to the State and National Registers of Historic Places, and in 1986 it was registered as a National Historic Landmark – one of only seven such sites in Western New York - and is listed on the National Trust’s list of twelve nationwide "sites to save" and the Preservation League’s statewide list of seven "sites to save." [http://www.richardson-olmsted.com/history.php Source]
 
 
== Books ==
 
<gallery>
 
File:buffaloNYbook001.jpg
 
</gallery>
 
 
 
== Images of Buffalo State Hospital ==
 
*[[:Category:Buffalo_State_Hospital_Images|Click here for more Buffalo State Hospital images]]
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
file:BSH116448pr.jpg‎
 
file:BSH116449pr.jpg‎
 
File:Buffalo State Hospital NY2.jpg
 
file:HPIM1844.JPG
 
</gallery>
 
 
 
==Videos==
 
 
 
* Video from Kirkbrides HD ~ http://www.vimeo.com/channels/KirkbridesHD
 
 
 
* http://www.vimeo.com/kirkbrideshd/buffalo
 
 
 
<videoflash>wa3inBYOnR4</videoflash>
 
 
 
----
 
*The following is a video done on Buffalo State Hospital for a college project by [http://www.youtube.com/user/ael101090 ael101090].
 
 
 
<videoflash>g9tEhQ8SMho</videoflash>
 
 
 
----
 
*This video was created by the Richardson Center Corporation and Odessa Pictures.  It gives a brief history and overview of the Kirkbride. 
 
 
 
<videoflash>RgZrebpkx9g</videoflash>
 
  
 
== Links & Additional Information ==  
 
== Links & Additional Information ==  
*[http://www.richardson-olmsted.com/ Richardson Center Corporation] - Preservation group
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*[http://www.richardson-olmsted.com/index.php|Richardson Center Corporation] - Preservation group
*[http://nysasylum.com/bpc/bpchome.htm NYS Asylum] - Lots of really great photos
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*[http://nysasylum.com/bpc/bpchome.htm|NYS Asylum] - Lots of really great photos
*[http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=pphhphoto&fileName=ny/ny0200/ny0207/photos/browse.db&action=browse&recNum=0&title2=State%20Lunatic%20Asylum,%20400%20Forest%20Avenue,%20Buffalo,%20Erie%20County,%20NY&displayType=1&itemLink=D?hh:23:./temp/~pp_NODy:: Historic American Buildings Survey] - Historical Photos
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*[http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=pphhphoto&fileName=ny/ny0200/ny0207/photos/browse.db&action=browse&recNum=0&title2=State%20Lunatic%20Asylum,%20400%20Forest%20Avenue,%20Buffalo,%20Erie%20County,%20NY&displayType=1&itemLink=D?hh:23:./temp/~pp_NODy::|Historic American Buildings Survey] - Historical Photos
*[http://www.kirkbridebuildings.com/buildings/buffalo/ Buffalo State Hospital @ Kirkbride Buildings]
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*[http://www.kirkbridebuildings.com/buildings/buffalo/|Buffalo State Hospital @ Kirkbride Buildings]
*[http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~asylums/ Buffalo State Hospital @ Historic Asylums]
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*[http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~asylums/|Buffalo State Hospital @ Historic Asylums]
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.H._Richardson_Complex Buffalo State Hospital @ Wikipedia]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.H._Richardson_Complex|Buffalo State Hospital @ Wikipedia]
*[http://www.richardson-olmsted.com/documents/HSR_FINAL_website_2.pdf Richardson Olmsted Complex Historic Structures Report]
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*[http://www.richardson-olmsted.com/documents/HSR_FINAL_website_2.pdf|Richardson Olmsted Complex Historic Structures Report]
*[http://buffalovr.com/bpc/ A 360 degree look of the interior of the complex]
 
 
 
The Architecture of Madness-Insane Asylums in the United States, Yanni, Carla, University of Minnesota Press (2007)
 
 
 
== References ==
 
<references/>
 
  
 
[[Category:New York]]
 
[[Category:New York]]
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[[Category:Active Institution]]
 
[[Category:Active Institution]]
 
[[Category:Preserved Institution]]
 
[[Category:Preserved Institution]]
[[Category:Articles With Videos]]
 
[[Category:Past Featured Article Of The Week]]
 

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